• Original Article

    Rapid and Simultaneous Detection of Dengue and Chikungunya Viruses by a Multiplex Lateral Flow Assay Using Ficolin-1, One of Human Innate Immune Defense Proteins
    Yi, So Yeon1, Kwon, Jungsun1, Lee, Jae Hoon2, Yoon, Kyungah3, Shin, Yong Beom1 and Park, Kyoungsook4*
    The infection of dengue virus (DENV) and chikungunya virus (CHIKV) can cause global public health problems, many of which are undifferentiated. Thus, … + READ MORE
    The infection of dengue virus (DENV) and chikungunya virus (CHIKV) can cause global public health problems, many of which are undifferentiated. Thus, their differential diagnosis is critical to proper patient management. In this study, we present a novel multiplex diagnostic system based on the lateral flow assay (LFA) using ficolin-1 and two-color latex beads labeled with antibodies to detect the dengue virus (DENV) and chikungunya virus (CHIKV) in a single strip. We investigated the binding of ficolin-1, a human innate immune system defense protein, to the viral envelope protein (EP) and developed the LFA system that contains the capturing agent, ficolin-1, which was immobilized on the test line. Our diagnostic system could differentially detect DENV-2 and CHIKV based on the color of the detecting agent in the test line of the strip. The limit of detection (LOD) by naked-eye observation in the multiplex LFA for viral EPs was 25 nM and that for the whole virus was 1 ´ 106 TCID50/mL per strip. Thus, multiplex LFA using ficolin-1 provides a rapid method for simultaneously detecting DENV and CHIKV and can be employed to monitor the status of circulating mosquitoes in a region at risk for DENV and/or CHIKV outbreak. - COLLAPSE
    31 March 2022
  • Original Article

    Establishment of Multiplex RT-PCR for Differentiating between the CD1901 and Lederle Strains of Canine Distemper Virus
    Yang, Dong-Kun1*, Park, Yu-Ri1, Park, Yesel1 and Hyun, Bang-Hun1
    Canine distemper virus (CDV) is a life-threatening pathogen in dogs. Clinical, pathological and molecular methods are required to diagnose CDV infection, and … + READ MORE
    Canine distemper virus (CDV) is a life-threatening pathogen in dogs. Clinical, pathological and molecular methods are required to diagnose CDV infection, and it is important to differentiate between the Korean CDV strain CD1901 and Lederle CDV vaccine strain. Therefore, in this study, we used multiplex reverse- transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) to differentiate between the CD1901 and Lederle strains. A primer set was designed based on the CDV nucleoprotein gene and nucleotide sequence variation in the fusion (F) gene. First, 224-bp DNA bands were amplified from viral RNA of the CD1901 and Lederle strains. Then, 428- and 326-bp DNA bands were amplified in the CD1901 and Lederle strain, respectively. The multiplex RT-PCR detection limits were 2.53 and 0.8 median tissue culture infectious dose/reaction for the CD1901 and Lederle strains, respectively. No cross-reactions were detected in non-CDV reference viruses, including rabies virus, parvovirus, canine adenovirus types 1 and 2, and parainfluenza virus. The results indicate that our one-step multiplex RT-PCR is useful for differentiating between wildtype and vaccine CDV strains. - COLLAPSE
    31 March 2022
  • Original Article

    Antiviral Activity of Quercetin-3-Glucoside Against Non-Polio Enterovirus
    Choi, Hwa-Jung1*
    Non-polio enteroviruses (NPEVs) are primary causative agents of aseptic meningitis, encephalitis, hand, foot and mouth disease (HFMD), and myocarditis in infants and … + READ MORE
    Non-polio enteroviruses (NPEVs) are primary causative agents of aseptic meningitis, encephalitis, hand, foot and mouth disease (HFMD), and myocarditis in infants and children and immunocompromised individuals. However, there are no approved treatments for NPEVs. It has been reported that flavonoids are abundantly found in plants and have antiviral activities. In this study, we explored the antiviral potential of quercetin-3-glucoside (Q3G), a natural flavonoid, against NPEVs such as coxsackievirus A16 and B3 (CVA16 and CVB3), enterovirus 71 (EV71), and human rhinovirus 1B (HRV 1B). Q3G showed potent antiviral activity against CVA16, CVB3, EV71, and HRV1B by suppressing the expression of viral RNA at the early stages of infection. Therefore, Q3G inhibits the early stages of the viral replication cycle and may provide an essential alternative for treating EV71, CVB3, CVA16, and HRV1B. - COLLAPSE
    31 March 2022
  • Original Article

    Genetic Distribution of Carbapenem-Resistant Enterobacteriaceae in Seoul Korea, 2018~2020
    Park, Sang-Hun1*, Park, So-Hyun1, Kim, Jin-Seok1, Yu, Jin-Kyung1, Kim, Jin-Kyoung1, Suh, Hyo-Sun1, Kwon, Eun Young1, Park, Kyoung Ae1, Cha, Eui Kyung1, Shin, Jae Min1, Jeoung, Hyo-Won1, Jeon, Su-Jin1, Hwang, Young-Ok1, Lee, Jib-Ho1 and Shin, Yong-Seoung1
    The present study was carried out to describe the prevalence and characteristics of CPEs among the CRE strains isolated from adult and … + READ MORE
    The present study was carried out to describe the prevalence and characteristics of CPEs among the CRE strains isolated from adult and children patients. A total of 8,147 clinical isolates were obtained from blood, urine, stool, sputum, lesion, bile, pus, tracheal aspiration, and etc., hospitals from 2018 to 2020. Species identification was confirmed by Bruker Biotyper MALDI-TOF MS (Bruker Daltonics GmbH, Bremen, Germany) and VITEK 2 (bioMérieux, Marcy l'Etoile, France). K. pneumoniae, which was detected in 4,690 (58.9%), was the most common isolated CRE, followed by Escherichia coli (E. coli) (detected in 1,747 [20.8%]), Enterobacter cloacae complex (502 [6.0%]), Citrobacter koseri (265 [3.1%]), Klebsiella aerogenes (254 [3.0%]), and Citrobacter freundii (220 [2.6%]). More than half of the detected CPE types were KPC-2 (58.6%), followed by NDM-1 (7.4%), NDM-5 (3.4%). Co-existence of NDM-5 and OXA-181 was detected in E. coli (60/63, 95.2%) followed by K. pneumoniae (3/63, 4.8%). These findings provide good basic data for comprehensive surveillance of CREs suggesting that KPC Klebsiella pneumoniae carbapenemases (Klebsiella pneumoniae carbapenemases) and NDM (New Delhi metallo-β-lactamase) are widespread in Seoul, Korea. - COLLAPSE
    31 March 2022
  • Letter to the Editor

    Recombinant ACE2-Ig Fusion Protein Neutralizes SARS-CoV-2
    Song, Jin-Woo1 and Koh, Young-Sang12*
    A novel coronavirus (SARS-CoV-2) is the causative agent for the COVID-19 pandemic, and needs for effective antiviral drugs have been demanded. Angiotensin-converting … + READ MORE
    A novel coronavirus (SARS-CoV-2) is the causative agent for the COVID-19 pandemic, and needs for effective antiviral drugs have been demanded. Angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 (ACE2) has been shown to be a cellular receptor for SARS-CoV and SARS-CoV-2. For the therapeutic validation of ACE2, a recombinant protein consisting of the ACE2 extracellular domain fused to the IgG1 Fc domain (ACE2-Ig) was generated. ACE2-Ig exhibits proper pharmacological properties and binds with a high affinity to SARS-CoV and SARS-CoV-2 receptor-binding domain. Further, it neutralizes virus with SARS-CoV and SARS-CoV-2 spike proteins. Taken overall, these data suggest that ACE2-Ig has substantial anti-SARS-CoV-2 properties and warrant further study concerning its potential applications for the treatment of SARS-CoV-2. - COLLAPSE
    31 March 2022