• Review Article

    Beneficial Therapy with Natural Anti-Inflammatory Agents and Supplements
    Fatema Akhter, Mohammad Saydur Rahman, G M Al Amin, Md. Ibrahim Miah, Young-Sang Koh
    Inflammation is a protective mechanism against injury or tissue damage. Depending on the extent of inflammation, various disease conditions can be induced. … + READ MORE
    Inflammation is a protective mechanism against injury or tissue damage. Depending on the extent of inflammation, various disease conditions can be induced. The incidence of inflammatory diseases has increased in recent years; synthetic nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) and steroids are usually used to treat this condition. Synthetic NSAIDs cause side effects; thus, natural medicines may be effective alternatives. Many natural anti-inflammatory agents and supplements are currently available, including natural anti-inflammatory polysaccharides, green tea, curcumin, colchicine, stingless bee honey, capsaicin, monoterpene kaempferol, omega-3 fatty acids, certain vitamins, minerals, and others. The mechanisms of action of these natural anti-inflammatory agents and supplements are very similar to those of synthetic anti-inflammatory agents, exhibiting anti-inflammatory activity mainly through inhibiting actions of pro-inflammatory cytokines including interleukins, tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α), and chemokines. In addition, some natural anti- inflammatory agents inhibit the action of cyclooxygenase enzymes (mainly COX2), inducible nitric oxide (iNOS), reactive oxygen species (ROS), and nuclear factor- kappa B (NF-κB) signaling molecules. Although the effectiveness of these natural anti-inflammatory agents and supplements is similar to that of chemical NSAIDs and steroids, they are safer to use. The purpose of this review is to summarize existing research data and discuss the activity of natural anti-inflammatory agents and supplements. - COLLAPSE
    31 December 2021
  • Original Article

    Oral Microbiota Change in Intubated Patients under Mechanical Ventilation
    Yoon Hee Choi, Soo Hyun Kim, Yeuni Yu, Seo-Young Lee, Yu Jung Jung, Do Young Kim, Myoung Soo Kim, Hee Sam Na
    One of the complications that may develop in intubated patients under mechanical ventilator is ventilator‐associated pneumonia (VAP). In most cases, VAP appears … + READ MORE
    One of the complications that may develop in intubated patients under mechanical ventilator is ventilator‐associated pneumonia (VAP). In most cases, VAP appears to result from aspiration of the oropharyngeal microflora or colonizing pathogens. For efficient prevention and management, understanding oral microbiome dynamics during mechanical ventilator is required. In this study, we analyzed longitudinal oral microbiome in intubated patients under mechanical ventilation support. Intubated patients and healthy subjects were recruited for this study. Buccal samples were collected for microbiome study. For longitudinal comparison, intubated samples were grouped as initial 2 days, first week, second week, third week, and over 3 week group. 16S ribosomal RNA next generation sequencing was applied for microbiome analysis. Alpha diversity and beta diversity was applied to characterize the oral microbiome. Linear discriminant analysis effect size (LefSe) was applied to determine difference in the composition among tested group. In intubated patients, the richness and evenness of the microbiota was significantly reduced compared to the healthy control. The most abundant species in intubated patients were Corynebacterium, Acinetobacter, Streptococcus, Staphylococcus, and Enterococcus, which represented more than 70% of the total sequences at the genus level. The most abundant species were Acinetobacter baumannii, Proteus mirabilis, Enterococcus faecalis Pseudomonas aeruginosa, and Gardnerella vaginalis were among the significant taxa within intubated patients. Pathogenic bacteria including Acinetobacter, Enterococcus, Klebsiella, Pseudomonas, and Staphylococcus were also frequently observed during the observation period. In intubated patients, the composition of oral microbiome was heavily distorted compared to healthy subjects and high abundance of pathogenic bacteria was observed. A better understanding of the longitudinal microbiome change in oral cavity of intubated patients should provide better understanding for effective prophylactic and therapeutic interventions for VAP. - COLLAPSE
    31 December 2021
  • Original Article

    Prevalence of Leukocytozoon spp. in Rescued Wild Birds in Korea
    Namhee Kim, Myeongsu Kim, Haerin Rhim, Jae-Ik Han
    Leukocytozoon spp. is a protozoan that causes infection in the blood, causing economic losses to the poultry industry. The aim of this … + READ MORE
    Leukocytozoon spp. is a protozoan that causes infection in the blood, causing economic losses to the poultry industry. The aim of this study was to investigate the prevalence of leukocytozoonosis in wild birds rescued from January 2019 to December 2020. The medical records and the preserved residual blood samples of rescued and treated wild birds were analyzed. After DNA extraction from the preserved blood samples, real-time polymerase chain reaction (PCR) was used to test the extracted DNA. A total of 336 wild birds were tested in this study, of which 3.6% (6/336) were positive. Leukocytozoonosis was detected in four bird species, two of which were winter migratory birds and two were summer migratory birds in Korea. The results of this study suggest that wild birds visiting or staying in Korea may be infected with the Leukocytozoon spp., and there is a possibility that the pathogen may be transmitted to other domestic or wild bird species or shared with each other. It is necessary to conduct an extensive investigation focusing on important migratory bird habitats and to analyze the genetic relationships between domestic and wild bird-origin pathogens. - COLLAPSE
    31 December 2021
  • Original Article

    Genetic Change of Varicella-Zoster Virus Propagated in Cell Culture in Non-Natural Conditions
    Sang Hoon Yeon, Ji Seon Park, Se Hwan Kang, Chan Hee Lee
    Primary infection of varicella-zoster virus (VZV) causes varicella and often leads to zoster after reactivation from latency. Both varicella and zoster can … + READ MORE
    Primary infection of varicella-zoster virus (VZV) causes varicella and often leads to zoster after reactivation from latency. Both varicella and zoster can be prevented by live attenuated vaccines, but the molecular mechanism of attenuation is not clearly understood. In this study, it was attempted to understand mechanism of attenuating mutation in VZV by in vitro propagation in non-natural conditions such as low temperature or non-human cell. Clinical strain YC02 was subcultured in vitro up to 60 times. Comparison of the genome sequences of YC02 variants cultured under various conditions identified specific mutations occurred in non-natural conditions. The mutations specific for low temperature culture and non-human cell culture were identified in 8 and 2 positions, respectively. Two vaccine-specific mutations in position 97748 and 106262 were identified during subculture in non-natural conditions. Genetic diversity as measured by genetic polymorphism and Shannon entropy decreased when cultured in guinea pig lung cell culture. The infectivity of YC02 cultured at low temperature appeared similar to that cultured in natural condition. On the other hands, infectivity decreased significantly when YC02 was subcultured in non-human cell. Further studies on mutations and genetic diversity of clinical strain cultured in non-natural conditions will help to elucidate the molecular mechanism of VZV attenuation. - COLLAPSE
    31 December 2021
  • Original Article

    Establishment of the 1st National Reference Standard for Sabin Inactivated Poliomyelitis Vaccine in Korea
    Misook Yang, Jung-Min Jung, Naery Lee, Yanghyun Kim, Eunjeong Park, Jong Won Kim, Jin Tae Hong
    In 2019, the first Sabin strain inactivated poliomyelitis vaccine was approved in Korea. It was necessary establishment of national reference standards of … + READ MORE
    In 2019, the first Sabin strain inactivated poliomyelitis vaccine was approved in Korea. It was necessary establishment of national reference standards of that vaccine for consistent quality control and standardization since international standards are provided only in small quantities per year. Therefore, Sabin strain inactivated poliomyelitis vaccine standard candidate was produced in 2019. In this study, we tried to establish the D-antigen content of the candidate standard through collaborate study with five institutions and six laboratories participated in the collaborate research. The candidate standard was set up value of DU/mL with Salk strain International Standard (12/104, NIBSC) and the SDU/mL value was established with the Sabin International Standard (17/160, NIBSC). The D-Ag contents (DU/mL and SDU/mL) derived from each laboratory were calculate using the CombiStat program and analyzed for statistical significance. Earlier this year, the candidate standard was registered as the 1st national reference standard of Sabin strain inactivated poliomyelitis vaccine and the D-Ag contents of the standard was assigned 47, 129, 262 DU/mL and 48, 106, and 193 SDU/mL by ​each type (Type 1, 2, 3,). Because of established of national standard, it will help consistent quality control and standardization of the Sabin strain inactivated poliomyelitis vaccines. - COLLAPSE
    31 December 2021
  • Original Article

    Antiviral Effects of Mandarin Somatid Natural Gel on SARS-CoV-2 Infection in vitro
    Yeonhwa Kim, Eun Yong Oh, Sohyun Park, Sang-Myeong Lee
    Severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) was reported in Wuhan, China, in December 2019 and continues to spread worldwide. Although several … + READ MORE
    Severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) was reported in Wuhan, China, in December 2019 and continues to spread worldwide. Although several vaccines were developed and are being used worldwide, antivirals are still needed for people who are not vaccinated or who are vaccinated but infected due to insufficient immune responses. Plant-derived natural substances have long been studied to develop drugs for infectious diseases, and accumulated evidences support a possibility that these may well be efficacious in reducing the risk of SARS-CoV-2 infection. In the present study, it was determined whether somatid natural gels (SNGs) prepared from mandarin, ginseng, or garlic inhibit the replication of SARS-CoV-2 in vitro study. Cytopathic effect (CPE) inhibition assay, immunofluorescence assay (IFA), and quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR) were performed to evaluate the effect of SNGs on SARS-CoV-2 replication in cell culture. Among three SNGs, the mandarin SNG had the highest inhibitory effect on SARS-CoV-2-induced CPE, while the garlic SNG showed no activity. When viral protein levels were identified by IFA, mandarin SNG treatment suppressed N protein expression in a dose-dependent manner. In addition, viral RNA copy numbers and infectious viral titers of SARS-CoV-2 were also significantly reduced by mandarin SNG. Our results suggest that mandarin SNG exerts antiviral activities against SARS-CoV-2, implying a possible use of these natural materials as a preventive or therapeutic agent for COVID19. - COLLAPSE
    31 December 2021